YUNESCO Inscribed monuments of Iran
1 - Tchogha Zanbil (1979)
Ziggurats were a form of ancient Mesopotamian mud-brick temple- tower common to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians from approximately 2200 until 500 BCE. Some of these architectural marvels still stand today. The word ziggurat is derived from the Babylonian ziqqurratu , meaning mountain peak or pinnacle . The ancients considered mountains to be the link between the heavens and earth; for instance, Mount Olympus was home to the Greek pantheon. Their function as celestial mountain is manifested in the names given to these ancient religious structures.
2 - Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Esfahan (1979)
The Royal Square of Esfahan is a monument to of Persian socio- cultural life during the Safavid period (until 1722). It is an urban phenomenon, which is an exception in Iran where the cities are ordinarily tightly parceled without spatial fluidity, the exception being the interior courts of the caravanserais. It is an example of the form of naturally vulnerable urban architecture. The Shah of the Iranian dynasty of the Safavids, Abbas, who reigned from 1587 to 1628, chose as his capital Esfahan, which he magnificently embellished and remodeled. The center of the city was accented by a vast Royal Square (Meidan-e Shah), which was so beautiful and so large that it was called The Image of the World .
3 - Persepolis (1979)
The magnificent ruins of Persepolis lie at the foot of Kuh- Rahmat (Mountain of Merch) in the plain of Marv Dasht about 650 km south of the present capital city of Teheran. Founded by Darius I in 518 BC (although more than a century passed before it was finally completed by Artaxerxes), Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemeind Empire.
4 - Takht-e Soleyman (2003)
Takht-e Soleyman is an outstanding ensemble of royal architecture, joining the principal architectural elements created by the Sassanians in a harmonious composition inspired by their natural context. The composition and the architectural elements created by the Sassanians there have exerted a strong influence not only in the development of religious architecture in the Islamic period, but also in other cultures.
5 - Bam and its Cultural Landscape (2004)
Bam and related sites represent a cultural landscape and an exceptional testimony to the development of a trading settlement in the desert environment of the Central Asian region. It developed at the crossroads of important trade routes at the southern side of the Iranian high plateau, and it became an outstanding example of the interaction of the various influences.
6 - Passargadae (2004)
The dynastic capital of Pasargadae was built by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC with contributions from different peoples of the empire created by him. It became a fundamental phase in the evolution of the classic Persian art and architecture. With its palsces, gardens, and the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Cyrus the Great, Pasargadae represents exceptional testimony to the Achaemenid civilization in Persia.
7 - Soltaniyeh (2005)
As the ancient capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, Soltaniyeh represents an exceptional testimony to the history of the 13 th and 14 th centuries. The Mausoleum of Oljaytu forms an essential link in the development of Islamic architecture in central and western Asia, from the classical Seljuk phase until the Timurid period. This is particulary relevant to the double-shell structure and the elaborate use of materials and themes in the decoration.
8 - Bisotun (2006)
Bisotun is located along ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, The Great, when he rose to the throne ot the Persian Empire, 521 BC.
9 - Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran (2008)
The Armenian monasteries of Iran have borne continuous testimony, since the origins of Christianity and certainly since the 7 th century, to Armenian culture in its relations and contact with the Persian and later the Iranian civilizations. They bear testimony to very large and refined panorama of architectural and decorative content associated with Armenian culture, in interaction with other regional cultures: Byzantine, Orthodocx, Assyrian, Persian and Muslim.
10 - Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System (2009)
The Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System demonstrates outstanding universal value as in its present form; it dates from the 3 rd century CE, probably on older bases from the 5th century BCE. It is complete, with numerous functions, and large-scale, making it exceptional. The Shushtar system is a homogeneous hydraulic system, designed globally and completed in the 3 rd century CE.
11 - Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex (2010)
Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex, located along one of the most frequented east-west trade routes, consists of a series of interconnected, covered brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for a variely of functions- commercial and trade- related activities, social gatherings, and educational and religious practices.
12 - Sheikh Safi al- din Khanegah and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil (2010)
Sheikh Safi al-Din Khanegah and Shrine Ensemble was built as a small microcosmic city with bazaars, public baths, squares, religious buildings, houses, and offices. It was the largest and most complete khanegah and the most prominent Sufi shrine since it also hosts the tomb of the founder of the Safavid Dynasty. For these reasons, it has evolved into a display of sacred works of art and architecture from the 14 th to the 18 th century and a center of Sufi religious pilgrimage.
13 - The Persian Garden (2011)
The Persian Garden consists of a collection of nine gardens, selected from various regions of Iran, which tangibly represent the diverse forms that this type of designed garden has assumed over the centuries and in different climatic conditions. They reflect the flexibility of the Chahar Bagh, or originating principle, of the Persian Garden, which has persisted unchanged over more than two millennia since its first mature expression was found in the garden of Cyrus the Great s Palatial complex, in Pasargadae. Natural elements combine with manmade components in the Persian Garden to create a unique artistic achievement that reflects the ideals of art, philosophical, symbolic and religious concepts.
14 - Gonbad-e Qabus (2012)
Visible from great distances in the surrounding lowlands near the ancient Ziyarid capital, Jorjan, the 53- meter high Gonbad-e Qābus tower dominates the town laid out around its base in the early 20th century. The tower s hollow cylindrical shaft of unglazed brick tapers up from an intricate geometric plan in the form of a ten-pointed star to a conical roof.
15 - Masjed-e Jame of Esfahan (2012)
Masjed-e Jāme is the oldest Friday (congregational) mosque in Iran, located in the historical center of Esfahan. The monument illustrates a sequence of architectural construction and decorative styles of different periods Iranian Islamic architercture, covering 12 centuries, most predominantly the Abbasid, Buyid, Seljuq, Ilkhanid, Muzzafarid, Timurid and Safavid eras.
16 - Golestan Palace (2013)
Golestan Palace is located in the heart and historic core of Tehran. The palace complex is one of the oldest in Tehran, originally built during the Safavid dynasty in the historic walled city. Following extensions and additions, it received is most characteristic features in the 19th century, when the palace complex was selected as the royal residence and seat of power by the Qajar ruling family.
17 - Shahr-e Sukhteh (Sistan)
The historic site of Shahr-e Sukhte is the most important prehistoric city of the 3rd millennium BC and a key location for Iranian prehistoric studies, particularly concerning the southeastern region, and a connection point between Near Eastern civilization and that of the Indus valley.
18 - Shush (Khuzestan)
Covering about 350 hectares, Susa constitutes one of the world s largest archaeological sites. It was formed on the bank of Sha ur river since the 4 th millennium BC and has been uninterruptedly inhabited unitl the 8 th century aH (After Hegira
19 - The complex of Handmade Settlements in Iran (Maymand Village)
This village shows the way of continuous life of human beings through the history those who utilized at most the existing natural facilities and harmonized with the surrounding nature.