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History of Ancient Iran

Ancient Iran, also known as Persia used for centuries, chiefly in the West, to designate those regions where Persian language and culture predominated, but it more correctly refers to a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis, Pars or Parsa, modern Fars. During the rule of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty (559-330 BC), the ancient Greeks first encountered the inhabitants of Persis on the Iranian Plateau, when the Achaemenids- natives of Persis- were expanding their political sphere. The Achaemenids were the dominant dynasty during Greek history until the time of Alexander the Great, and the use of the name Persia was gradually extended by the Greeks and other peoples to apply to the whole Iranian plateau. This tendency was reinforced with the rise of the Sasanian dynasty, also native to Persis, whose culture dominated the Iranian plateau until the 7th century AD. The people of this area have traditionally referred to the region as Iran, "Land of the Aryans," and in 1935 the government of Iran requested that the name Iran be used in lieu of Persia. The two terms, however, are often used interchangeably when referring to periods preceding the 20th century.
Elamite Empire: 2500 - 644 BC, عیلامیان
First organized settlements of Iran were established in Elam as far back as the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. The Elamites established their capital at Shush.
Median Empire: 720-550 BC, مادها
In 646 BC The Assyrian King sacked Susa and ended Elamite supremacy. Dyako united 7 different Arian tribes in Hegmataneh.
Achaemenid Empire: 550-330 BC, هخامنشیان
During Achaemenid Empire, Cyrus the great destroyed Medians, allowed Jews to make temple for themselves, established the big government of Persian, and published the prism of human rights.
Seleucid Empire: 334-126 BC, سلوکیان
Seleucids were Greek successors of Alexander who forced Iranian people to accept Greek culture and use Greek language.
Parthian: 248 BC - 226 AD, اشکانیان
Parthians with the leadership of the first Arsac (Ashk) established a government to confront Greek Seleucids. With efforts of next Arsaces, they vanished Seleucids completely from Iran.
Sassanid: 226-642, ساسانیان
Ardeshir who was grandson of Sassan, defeated Parthians and established sassanids. Sassanian introduced themselves as successors of Achaemenes.

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