History of Iran after Islam
A crucial chapter in Persian history started when the Arabs defeated the Sassanians at Qadisirya in AD 637, following up with a victory at Nehavand near Hamadan that effectively ended Sassanian rule.
Omavian (Umayyad) came to power after Imam Ali. But shortly after that, they were so weak that they lost the battle against Abbasian.
Abbasian (Abbasids) were even more cruel than Omavian (Umayyad).
821-873, طاهریان, Capital cities: Merv, later Nishapur,
Taher (Tahir) was one of the generals of Mamoon who declared independence in Khorasan and then developed his government to Sistan and defeated Maziar in Tabarestan.
864-1030, علویان, Capital cities: Amul,
Alavian were descendants of Imam Hassan who established governments in Tabarestan and Deylam. Alavian were destroyed by Samanian.
861–1003, صفاریان, Capital cities: Zaranj in Afghanistan,
Saffarid dynasty ruled from 861 to 1003 AD. The founder of Saffarid, Yaqub, was a coperworker which is equal to Saffar. This is the reason why they were called Saffarids.
819 - 999, سامانیان, Capital cities: Samarkand, Bukhara,
Big poets and scientists like Roudaki, Ibn-e Sina, Abu Reyhan flourished during Samanian. In this dynasty Sepahsalaran gradually came to power.
927 - 1043, آل زیار, Capital cities: Esfahan, Rey, Gorgan,
Ziyarid dynasty was a minor Islamic dynasty who ruled first in northern Iran, and then in Ṭabarestan and Gorgan.
943–1029, آل بویه, Capital cities: Shiraz, Ray, Baghdad,
Sons of Buya (Ali, Hassan and Ahmad) established a government and called it Al-e Buya. They defeated Abbasi caliphates.
977–1186, غزنویان, Capital cities: Ghazna, Lahore,
Baba Taher, Hasanak Vazir, Ferdowsi were living during Ghaznavid dynasty.
1037–1194, سلجوقیان, Capital cities: Nishapur, Rey, Esfahan, Hamadan, Merv, , Historical heritages: Toghrol Tower, a 12th-century monument south of Tehran. The Kharāghān twin towers, built in Iran in 1053 to house the remains of Seljuq princes.,
Seljuq Toghrol defeated king Masoud Ghaznavi and established Seljuk Empire. During Malekshah, Seljuk dynasty expanded largely from China to Turkey.
1077 - 1231, خوارزمشاهیان, Capital cities: Gurganj, Samarkand, Tabriz,
Famous Iranian poet Nezami Ganjavi lived during Khwarazmian dynasty.
Genghis Khan the Mongol attacked Iran, massacred a large number of Iranian people violently and burned the libraries.
1256–1335, ایلخانان, Capital cities: Maragha, Tabriz, Soltaniyeh,
Famous Iranian poets Saadi and Molavi were living during Ilkhanate dynasty.
1332-1381, سربداران, Capital cities: Sabzevar,
1370–1507, تیموریان, Capital cities: Samarkand, Heart,
Lame Timur (Tamerlane) who introduced himself as descendant of Genghis, attacked Iran and came to power.